Jung's Psychological types

According to Jung's theory of psychological types we are all different in fundamental ways. One's ability to process different information is limited by their particular type. These types are sixteen.

People can be either Extroverts or Introverts, depending on the direction of their activity; Thinking, Feeling, Sensing, Intuitive, according to their own information pathways; Judging or Perceiving, depending on the method in which they process received information.

Extroverts vs. Introverts

Extroverts are directed towards the objective world whereas Introverts are directed towards the subjective world. The most common differences between Extroverts and Introverts are shown below:

  • are interested in what is happening around them
  • are open and often talkative
  • compare their own opinions with the opinions of others
  • like action and initiative
  • easily make new friends or adapt to a new group
  • say what they think
  • are interested in new people
  • easily break unwanted relations
  • are interested in their own thoughts and feelings
  • need to have own territory
  • often appear reserved, quiet and thoughtful
  • usually do not have many friends
  • have difficulties in making new contacts
  • like concentration and quiet
  • do not like unexpected visits and therefore do not make them
  • work well alone

Sensing vs. Intuition

Sensing is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its physical qualities and its affection by other information. Intuition is an ability to deal with the information on the basis of its hidden potential and its possible existence. The most common differences between Sensing and Intuitive types are shown below:

Sensing types
  • see everyone and sense everything
  • live in the here and now
  • quickly adapt to any situation
  • like pleasures based on physical sensation
  • are practical and active
  • are realistic and self-confident
Intuitive types
  • are mostly in the past or in the future
  • worry about the future more than the present
  • are interested in everything new and unusual
  • do not like routine
  • are attracted more to the theory than the practice
  • often have doubts

Thinking vs. Feeling

Thinking is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its structure and its function. Feeling is an ability to deal with information on the basis of its initial energetic condition and its interactions. The most common differences between Thinking and Feeling type are shown below:

Thinking types
  • are interested in systems, structures, patterns
  • expose everything to logical analysis
  • are relatively cold and unemotional
  • evaluate things by intellect and right or wrong
  • have difficulties talking about feelings
  • do not like to clear up arguments or quarrels
Feeling types
  • are interested in people and their feelings
  • easily pass their own moods to others
  • pay great attention to love and passion
  • evaluate things by ethics and good or bad
  • can be touchy or use emotional manipulation
  • often give compliments to please people

Perceiving vs. Judging

Perceiving types are motivated into activity by the changes in a situation. Judging types are motivated into activity by their decisions resulting from the changes in a situation. The most common differences between Perceiving and Judging types are shown below:

Perceiving types
  • act impulsively following the situation
  • can start many things at once without finishing them properly
  • prefer to have freedom from obligations
  • are curious and like a fresh look at things
  • work productivity depends on their mood
  • often act without any preparation
Judging types
  • do not like to leave unanswered questions
  • plan work ahead and tend to finish it
  • do not like to change their decisions
  • have relatively stable workability
  • easy follow rules and discipline

Jung's Model of the Psyche


When I think of "myself," I am thinking of the part of me which I am conscious of. That is my ego (Latin for "I"). But there is more to me than that ...

There is also my persona (Greek for "mask") which hides my ego from the outer world. I actively maintain that mask, according to the conventions of family, society, profession, etc.

There is also my personal unconscious, which contains forgotten or never-conscious experiences of various kinds, but which is uniquely my own. And then, there is the collective unconscious which connects me with the whole human experience.

Within this unconscious realm there are several different "structures." Though the Self is the whole person, conscious and unconscious together, it also acts as center, seeking to organize the whole.

Each of us has both masculine and feminine elements in the psyche. Though the appropriate one becomes incorporated into the conscious ego, the other expresses itself as an unconscious focus of creative energy, serving the balance of ego and Self. Jung gave the name anima to the feminine center of a man, and animus to the masculine center of a woman.

But there is also my Shadow. In a sense, the Shadow is all of that which is "dark" (unconscious) to me; but in a more special sense, it can be an activated center ("complex") energized by repressed feelings, anger, old hurts, etc. If not recognized as such (made conscious), its energy can be projected onto others. Then the faults I see in other people are really the mirror image of my own. My first task of individuation is to "own my own shadow."

Alfred Adler
Erik Erikson
Erich Fromm
Abraham Maslow
B.F. Skinner
Albert Bandura
Sigmund Freud
Carl Jung
Carl Rogers
The Ultimate Theory